Historian William Leuchtenburg describes the Progressives thusly: For Progressive reformers, the Constitution represented a loose set of guidelines for political governance, rather than acting as a strict authority on the political development of the United States or on the scope of federal power. The Progressive Era Time from the 1890s to 1920s, where Americans sought to resolve many of the country's problems. Progressives did little for civil rights or the plight of African Americans in the aftermath of Reconstruction, as the Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of many racist southern laws. I might have won.”. The opulence of the Marble House is typical of Gilded Age residences in Newport, Rhode Island. She was active in the women’s rights and women’s suffrage movements, establishing several notable women’s organizations. The most famous settlement house in America was Chicago’s Hull House, founded by the social reformer Jane Addams. At a series of mass meetings, after the leading figures of the American labor movement spoke in general terms about the need for solidarity and preparedness, Clara Lemlich rose to speak about the conditions she and other women worked under. The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) was once one of the largest labor unions in the United States, one of the first U.S. unions to have a primarily female membership, and a key player in the labor history of the 1920s and 1930s. Addams became a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. The news of the strike spread quickly to all of the New York garment workers. Reformers felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency, and they eagerly sought out the “one best system.”. The following are examples of a few major figures: Theodore Roosevelt: A portrait of President Theodore Roosevelt. City governments also were reorganized to reduce the power of local ward bosses and to increase the powers of the city council. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform all throughout the United States. The publication of articles and accounts of the experience in the Tribune led to the release of 12 patients who were not mentally ill, to a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution, and eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws. Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862–March 25, 1931) was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, and (along with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett) an early leader in the civil-rights movement. Journalists began to respond to the excesses of the Gilded Age toward the end of the period. An 1888 photograph by Jacob Riis shows immigrants in a New York, New York, tenement. McClure’s Magazine. I. She demanded an end to talk and called for a strike of the entire industry. Washington Gladden: Portrait of Social Gospeller Washington Gladden, who was an important leader of the movement. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire on March 25, 1911, was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of New York City and resulted in the fourth-highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history. In 1878, Anthony and Stanton arranged for Congress to be presented with an amendment giving women the right to vote. Hospital Olesa. This work inspired many reforms of working-class housing immediately after publication, and it has continued to have a lasting impact in today’s society. In 1852, they founded the New York Women’s State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperance conference because she was a woman. In the nation's growing cities, factory output grew, small businesses flourished, and incomes rose. Many educational reforms and innovations generated during this period continued to influence debates and initiatives in American education for the remainder of the twentieth century. McClure’s Magazine (January 1901) published many early muckraker articles. The Society for Ethical Culture, established in New York in 1876 by Felix Adler, attracted Reform Jewish followers. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft supported trust-busting. From 1884 to 1894, Myron Reed of the First Congregational Church served as a spokesman for labor unions on issues such as worker’s compensation. Following World War I, provisions were made for a full-scale system of hospital and medical-care benefits for veterans. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The term “muckraker” was used during the Progressive Era to characterize reform -minded American journalists who largely wrote for popular magazines. STUDY. Subject X2: US History ‹ 18. The Baptist minister Jim Goodhart set up an employment bureau, and provided food and lodging for tramps and hobos at the mission he ran. It was the first national government office in the world that focused solely on the well-being of children and their mothers. One unique trend in the history of welfare in the United States were maternalist reforms. Lynchings were … Neighborhood activities, counseling, childcare, … Veterans of the Mexican-American War and Union veterans of the Civil War could receive pensions automatically at age 62, regardless of disability. One main goal of the Progressive movement was purification of government, as Progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines and bosses. According to Robert Higgs, Progressive Era has always been described as a Bridge to Modern Times, because the attitude in relation to the suitable role of government were changing from the limited role favored in the 19th century to the progressively expanding role … Politics in the Gilded Age were intense. Despite Progressives’ stances on federal aid and intervention, they sought support from local governments to lead the way in social and economic reforms. Making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nation’s natural resources. President Theodore Roosevelt generally supported this idea and was later to incorporate it as part of his political philosophy of “New Nationalism.”. In the Progressive Era, when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists, Addams was one of the most prominent reformers. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure’s—took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues such as child labor. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice. The Hull mansion and several subsequent acquisitions were continuously renovated to accommodate the changing demands of the association. Many people view the Pro-gressives as reformers who fought against corruption and modernized our laws and … Progressive-Era reformers sought to use the federal government to make sweeping changes in politics, education, economics, and society. Rather than affiliating with a dominant party, American Progressives shared a common goal of wielding federal power to pursue a sweeping range of social, environmental, political, and economic reforms. Progressive Era Timeline: Definition and Summary of Progressivism Summary and Definition: Progressivism was an important US political movement from 1890-1920 that encompassed modern ideas such as working conditions, unionization and female suffrage.Progressivism addressed major issues and problems in American society such as urbanization, industrialization and child labor. Politicians in the major cities controlled their power through various political machines. These included efforts to outlaw the sale of alcohol; regulate child labor and sweatshops; scientifically manage natural resources; insure pure and wholesome water and milk; Americanize immigrants or restrict immigration altogether; and bust or regulate … Progressives turned to educational researchers to evaluate the reform agenda by measuring numerous aspects of education, which later led to standardized testing. With astounding success, the Progressives triumphed where the Populists had failed, inspiring revolutions in the running cities, states, and even the federal government. The fire had various effects on the community. In New York City, a Committee on Public Safety was formed, headed by noted social worker Frances Perkins, to identify specific problems and lobby for new legislation, such as the bill to grant workers shorter hours in a work week, known as the “54-Hour Bill.” The New York State Legislature then created the Factory Investigating Commission to, “investigate factory conditions in this and other cities and to report remedial measures of legislation to prevent hazard or loss of life among employees through fire, unsanitary conditions, and occupational diseases.” Their findings led to 38 new laws regulating labor in New York State, and gave the commission members a reputation as leading progressive reformers working on behalf of the working class. He is well known for using his photographic and journalistic passion to bring attention and aid to New York City’s impoverished citizens; they would became the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. In 1880, the Salvation Army denomination arrived in America. The 1890s and early 1900s witnessed a profound social and political reaction to the Gilded Age, the period between the early 1870s and late 1890s that was characterized by excesses and corruption. Early efforts in urban reform were driven by poor conditions exposed by tragedies such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. The modern characterization of this type of journalism is “investigative,” and investigative journalists today are often informally called “muckrakers.” During the Progressive Era, these journalists relied on their own reporting and often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. He established a free dispensary for medical emergencies, an employment bureau for job seekers, a summer camp for children, night schools for extended learning, and English language classes. Purification to eliminate waste and corruption was a powerful element, as was the Progressives’ support of worker compensation, improved child labor laws, minimum wage legislation, limited work hours, graduated income tax, and women’s suffrage. Lenox Hill Neighborhood House, founded in 1894; Henry Street Settlement, founded in 1893; and University Settlement House, founded in 1886 (and the oldest in the United States) were important sites for social reform. The 19th Amendment afforded women the right to vote, but the Progressive Movement and women's organizations also worked for a wide variety of women's rights. Hull House became, at its inception in 1889, “a community of university women” whose main purpose was to provide social and educational opportunities for working-class people, many of whom were recent European immigrants living in the surrounding neighborhood. Victorian England, increasingly concerned with poverty, gave rise to the movement whereby those connected to universities settled students in slum areas to live and work alongside local people. Social Gospel workers were post-millennialist, believing that Christ would return to Earth after humankind had worked through its sins. Upton Sinclair (September 20, 1878–November 25, 1968) was an American author who wrote nearly 100 books and other works across a number of genres. In which John Green teaches you about the Progressive Era in the United States. The “residents,” as volunteers at Hull were called, held classes in literature, history, art, domestic activities (such as sewing), and many other subjects. Muckrakers continued some of the investigative exposures and sensational traditions of yellow journalism, but instead wrote to change society. Samuel Gompers, first president of the American Federation of Labor. Many Progressives sought to rid the government of corruption, and muckraking became a particular type of journalism that exposed waste, corruption, and scandal on a national level. Particular attention is given to the presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. After that, special federal emergency relief such as the Civilian Conservation Corps and other public-works programs were started. Child-labor laws were designed to prohibit children from entering the workforce before a certain age, further compelling children into the public schools. 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