Under the new law (which affected everyone going forward, regardless of birth year) if your spouse suspends his or her earned benefits, your spousal benefits also will be suspended. When a worker files for retirement benefits, the worker's spouse may be eligible for a You may decide to restrict your benefits application by: 1) filing for benefits under your own work record, or 2) filing for benefits as a widow/widower. That allowed them to rack up delayed retirement credits until they turned 70. Economic Security Planning, Inc. Today’s column addresses questions about when it’s possible to file for spousal benefits, who can still file restricted applications for spousal benefits only, divorced spousal benefits after early retirement benefits and eligibility for disability benefits … If you’re divorced, to qualify for spousal benefits you must: The amount of your spousal benefit depends on 1) your spouse’s earnings history and 2) how old you are when you claim your benefits. If you continue to work while receiving benefits, the retirement benefit earnings limit still applies until you reach full retirement age. doing so may result in a benefit as little as 32.5 percent of the worker's ), Proof of U.S. citizenship. If My Spouse Dies, Can I Collect Their Social Security Benefits? Otherwise we pay the spousal benefit. En español | When a Social Security beneficiary dies, his or her surviving spouse is eligible for survivor benefits. A spousal benefit is reduced 25/36 of one percent for each month before normal retirement age, up to 36 months. The earliest you can claim survivor benefits is age 60 (whereas the earliest you could be eligible for retirement or spousal benefits is age 62). When you’re ready to apply, we recommend using a checklist to ensure you take the right steps and have the right documentation. Calculate the Social Security you’re owed, which is based on birth year, and could be between age 65 and 67, Have a spouse that is already collecting their Social Security benefits, Have an earned benefit that is lower than your potential spousal benefit, Be age 62 or taking care of a child who is age 16 or younger or disabled, who is the child of your spouse and who is also receiving Social Security benefits based on the spouse’s work record, Have been married to the relevant ex-spouse for at least 10 years, Be unmarried (your ex, however, can be remarried), Have been divorced for two years before you claim, If you’re taking care of a child who is younger than 16 or who is disabled. For 2020, the earnings test limit is $18,240. My fathers social security check is significantly larger than hers so I suggested she look into claiming 50% spousal benefit based on his check amount. If you were not born in the U.S., you will need to show lawful alien status, U.S. military discharge papers if you served before 1968, W-2 forms(s) and/or self-employment tax returns for last year. When you apply for Social Security spousal benefits, they may ask you to provide the following documents to confirm you are eligible: Applying and ensuring you claim the right benefit at the right time for your personal finances can be confusing. ), Enter your date of birth In those cases, you can file a restricted application for spousal benefits without also applying for earned benefits. Social Security spousal benefits are a part of a worker’s retirement or disability benefit given to their spouse. If you receive spousal benefits and are also entitled to disability. PIA is the amount of Social Security benefits that your spouse is entitled to at his or her full retirement age (which is based on birth year, and could be between age 65 and 67 – see table in “How are spousal benefits calculated for Social Security?” section). There are two exceptions where deemed filing doesn’t apply: The second loophole that the law ended was a practice called file and suspend. Social Security benefits that may extend to the spouse are known as “SSA spousal benefits”. 1. Claiming early permanently reduces your benefits. Typically, that means you’ve paid into Social Security for at least 10 years over the course of your life. who do not have a qualifying child in their care, If you enter your date of birth and the effective month for which you would With survivor benefits, if your late spouse boosted his or her Social Security payment by waiting past FRA to file, your survivor benefit would also increase. However, with spousal benefits, you have to apply for both your own earned benefit and spousal benefit at the same time. Calculate your Social Security benefits with a 4-question quiz. But all's not lost. 3. How Much Is the Social Security Spousal Benefit? Then we compute the reduction factor, which is 36 times 25/36 of one percent, or What are Social Security spousal benefits? Prior to the law change, people who were eligible for earned benefits and spousal benefits were required to file for both at the same time, a practice known as deemed filing. The Social Security Administration (SSA) issues benefits to retired workers as supportive income once the worker claims retirement benefits at or after age 62. / Social Security retirement benefits can start as early as age 62, but your benefits will be permanently reduced by up to 30%. Before you reach full retirement age, the Social Security Administration deducts $1 from your benefits for every $2 you earn above the annual limit. This benefit is even more important for many divorced spouses, as it might represent the only benefits available to many divorcees. A recent law changed the way many people can claim spousal benefits. Applying a 25 percent reduction to the $800 amount gives a spousal benefit Jennifer Thomas is a Chicago-based writer and editor who writes about social security, retirement, business, finance, health and lifestyles. So when someone files for one benefit, they must file for both, and will only receive the higher of the two amounts, with no opportunity to switch later. You are eligible to begin retirement and spousal benefits starting at age 62. primary insurance amount. The 2015 law, however, changed the rules so that anyone born on or after Jan. 2, 1954 is affected by deemed filing even after he or she reaches full retirement age. But if you’re married, you’ll also have to run some calculations and consider and decide when you and your spouse should start collecting benefits based on varying income history, age, health, and life expectancy. Calculate what you're owed from Social Security in 2 minutes. Spousal benefits are based on the income earned during a qualifying worker’s life, as well as the retirement age of both the worker and their spouse. The Social Security Administration (SSA) allows several exceptions to the one-year marriage requirement to qualify for spousal benefits. If they qualify, your ex-spouse, spouse, or child may receive a monthly payment of up to one-half of your retirement benefit amount. If you’re younger than full retirement age, the 2021 earnings limit is $18,960. When can a spouse claim spousal benefits? If the number of months exceeds 36, then the benefit is further reduced 5/12 of one percent per month. Social Security spousal benefits are a part of a worker’s retirement or disability benefit given to their spouse. However, if a spouse is caring The criteria for spousal benefits varies depending on whether you’re married or divorced: If you’re married, to qualify for spousal benefits you must: If you’re divorced, your benefits aren’t connected in the same way, so you can claim spousal benefits even if your ex isn’t collecting Social Security yet. What are Social Security spousal benefits? They can even provide a nice supplement to your 401(k) or IRA distributions. Here’s what you need to know about how the Social Security Administration calculates spousal benefits. When you apply for benefits, Social Security will automatically consider you to be applying for both your own benefits and any spousal benefits. You can expect the following when applying for Social Security spousal benefits: You can receive up to 50% of your spouse’s Social Security benefit. For this to work, your spouse must have already filed for their benefits. Spouses who aren't eligible for Social Security on their own work record can apply for benefits based on the other spouse's record. Meanwhile, the higher earning spouse would delay taking Social Security for as long as possible to grow their earned benefits. In order to be eligible for spousal benefits, your spouse or ex-spouse must still be living. If you claim before you reach your full retirement age, you will permanently lower your monthly benefit and even your survivor benefit. Effect of the retirement choice on your benefit: A spouse can choose to retire as early as age 62, but Based on the GPO provision, if a person receives a government pension based on their earnings that were exempt from Social Security taxes, any Social Security spousal or survivor benefits … If the spousal benefit is more than your own, you’ll get your own earned benefit plus an additional amount to bring you up to that higher spousal benefit amount. However, there is a limit to how much you can earn and still receive full benefits. Once you reach age 62, you are entitled to receive a spousal benefit even if you have never worked. 2. You can file for spousal benefits the same way you would earned benefits: on the Social Security Administration website, by phone at 1-800-772-1213, or by visiting your local Social Security field office. The many rules can feel confusing, and the best way to calculate your own benefit is to use a Social Security benefits calculator. (Note: there is an exception to this rule for spousal benefits – see the loophole directly below). You can apply for retirement benefits at age 70 to receive all the delayed retirement credits.Our system is set up to take applications four months in advance, and when you’re ready, you can apply for your retirement benefits online.. for a qualifying child, the spousal benefit is not reduced. Social Security calculates and pays the higher amount. If your spouse’s full retirement age benefit amounts to $2,000 per month, your spousal benefit at your full retirement age could amount to $1,000 per month. If you’re eligible and can qualify, the spousal benefit can be as much as 50% of the higher-earning spouse’s full retirement age benefit. / A Testimonial from a Reader on Amazon: Benefits For Your Family If you’re getting Social Security retirement benefits, some members of your family may also qualify to receive benefits on your record. You can get Social Security survivors or retirement benefits and work at the same time. That 50% is the most you could be eligible for—but as with earned benefits, you’ll receive less if you claim before your full retirement age. But that was only until they reached full retirement age. "primary insurance amount," You can file a restricted application for spousal benefits at your full retirement age. Social Security is much broader than just the benefits provided to retired workers. Spousal benefits are based on the income earned during a qualifying worker’s life, as well as the retirement age of both the worker and their spouse. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 closed two Social Security spousal benefits loopholes mainly used by married couples. Next, the SSA calculates 50% of your spouse’s PIA. For example, if the worker's primary insurance amount is $1,600 percent for each month before normal retirement age, up to 36 months. The spousal benefit can be as much as half of the worker's Eligibility requirements and benefit information. A spousal benefit is reduced 25/36 of one be at least age 62 or have a qualifying child in her/his care. People receiving spousal benefits based on ex-spouses will continue to get their benefits even if the spouse suspends theirs. retirement benefit. While the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 ended some of the strategizing around spousal benefits, but there are still ways to maximize your spousal benefits: Spousal benefits can play an important role in a comfortable retirement. Your spousal benefit is not affected by the age at which your husband or wife claimed Social Security benefits. Note that the full retirement age for survivors is different than the full retirement age for Social Security retirement benefits. insurance amount. The earliest you can claim spousal benefits is 62—but how early you claim plays an important role in maximizing your benefits. The Government Pension Offset rule reduces spousal benefits by one-third of the public pension amount. A surviving spouse can collect 100 percent of the late spouse’s benefit if the survivor has reached full retirement age , but the amount will be lower if the deceased spouse claimed benefits before he or she reached full … 5. You will reach normal retirement age Imagine you're entitled to a monthly benefit of $1,000 based on your earnings history. like to begin receiving benefits, we will tell you the effect of early retirement In most cases, if you can afford to, it pays to wait until you reach your full retirement age to claim your benefits. Once they hit full retirement age, if they hadn’t claimed any benefits, they could claim just their spousal benefits first, and delay taking their own earned benefits. If you claim benefits before your full retirement age (table directly below), your benefits will be permanently reduced based on the number of months until you reach that age. Compute the effect of early retirement for spouses, Website Policies If your spouse is not yet receiving retirement benefits, you can claim your own Social Security starting at 62, and later switch to spousal benefits when your spouse files. But you have the advantage of not needing to wait for your ex to file for his or her own benefits first. the worker's primary insurance amount. of $600. Note that the age at which the other spouse files for Social Security benefits doesn’t affect this calculation. Social Security spousal benefits are some of the most generous benefits you'll receive in retirement. How retirement benefits, spousal benefits, and widow(er) benefits are calculated, How to decide the best age to claim your benefit, How Social Security benefits are taxed and how that affects tax planning, Click here to see the full list. If your spouse or ex-spouse dies and has earned benefits that are higher than yours, you could be eligible for survivor benefits.The size of survivor benefits is based on 1) Your spouse or ex-spouse’s earnings; 2) Your full survivors retirement age; and 3) Whether your spouse or ex was receiving reduced benefits (meaning they started taking Social Security before their full retirement age). Keep in mind, this would mean delaying when. However, your benefit does not depend on when your spouse claims. Social Security spousal benefits are just one of these features. We are often asked “How do you qualify for spousal benefits from Social Security”? The one exception is divorced couples. If you are married or divorced and nearing retirement age, you may be eligible for spousal Social Security benefits. Compute the effect of early retirement for spouses benefit based on the worker's earnings. For a spouse who is not entitled to benefits on his or her own earnings record, this reduction factor is applied to the base spousal benefit, which is 50 percent of Social Security spousal benefits allow one spouse to draw a benefit based on the earnings record of their current spouse, or in some cases a divorced ex-spouse. You may receive spousal survivor benefits as early as your 60th birthday if your deceased spouse was eligible for Social Security insurance benefits. If a spouse is eligible for a retirement benefit based on his or her own earnings, Spousal benefits allow you to get up to 50 percent of the total benefits your spouse is eligible for without taking away from their benefits. A Social Security spousal benefit is calculated as 50% of the other spouse’s PIA. His or her spouse, however, was still allowed to start collecting spousal benefits. and if that benefit is higher than the spousal benefit, then we pay the By a qualifying child, If you’ve been divorced more than once, your benefit can be based on your highest-earning spouse if that marriage meets the qualifications. the spouse will receive a reduced benefit. Another requirement is that the spouse must If you receive a pension based on work not covered by Social Security (for example government work), you can still collect Social Security spousal benefits, but the amount will be reduced. Social Security spousal benefits may be available, under certain circumstances to spouses, ex-spouses and widows and widowers. However, spousal benefits are reduced by 25/36 of 1% for each month before your full retirement age, up to 36 months early. benefit. we mean a child who is under age 16 or who receives Social Security disability benefits. and the worker's spouse chooses to begin receiving benefits 36 months before his or her Note that you do not need the consent of your ex-spouse. before "normal (or full) retirement age," month following the effective month. /, Enter the effective month and year for which you would like to begin receiving benefits: If you claim benefits before your Full Retirement Age, they will reduce your spousal benefits. Normally a spousal benefit is 50% of the spouse's FRA benefit amount, reduced if the spouse claiming the spousal benefit is filing for benefits early. If you were born on Jan. 2, 1954 or later, and you are married, the higher earning spouse may consider delaying claiming their benefits until age 70 to increase the benefit with delayed retirement credits. 7  If one spouse is already receiving their own benefits, and later becomes eligible for a spousal benefit, there is a formula that is used to determine what amount of spousal benefit (if any) they may receive. Again, this means you will not have a choice about waiting and switching. Both of you, however, must be at least age 62. depending on the spouse's age at retirement. Your full spouse’s benefit could be up to one-half the amount … on your spousal benefit as a percentage of the worker's primary insurance amount. The amount you’re allowed to earn while receiving benefits depends on your age. The maximum spousal benefit is equal to … If you were born before Jan. 2, 1954, and haven’t claimed your own benefits yet, you are still able to take advantage of the loophole. Will My Wife Get Social Security Spousal Benefits When I Start My Retirement Benefits? Your spouse or ex-spouse also must be living (if they are not, you may be eligible for survivors benefits). Social Security's history goes back to a time when one-worker families were much more common than they are today, and some believe that spousal benefits have become obsolete. Lower-earning spouses who claim their own Social Security benefit before full retirement age take a cut of as much as 25%. In fact, the Social Security Administration (SSA) provides an important source of retirement income for many Americans, including the spouses, ex-spouses, widows, widowers, and dependent children of workers. There are many differences between spousal benefits and survivor benefits. If you’ve worked enough to qualify for your own Social Security retirement benefits, you will not get both benefits added together. With survivor benefits, you also are allowed to file a restricted application (applying just for your own earned benefits or just for survivor benefits). (Check the Social Security website to determine your FRA, as it depends on your year of birth.) (month/day/year format): Birth certificate (or another proof of birth), Marriage certificate (and if applying as a divorced spouse, you’ll need a certified copy of the final divorce decree. Intended for married couples with a sole or primary breadwinner, spousal benefits can significantly increase the amount of money you have coming in during retirement. Thanks for your question. File and suspend was a popular method used by married couples to get the most out of their Social Security benefits. normal retirement age, we first take 50 percent of $1,600 to get an $800 base spousal We break down everything you need to know, and how to apply for spousal benefits. Spousal benefits from Social Security When a worker files for benefits from Social Security, the worker's spouse may be able to claim a benefit based on the worker's contributions. This strategy would let you start receiving spousal benefits, while delaying taking your earned benefits, causing them to grow. Indeed, to claim Social Security spousal benefits, you’ll need to meet certain criteria. Note that eligibility for the spousal disability benefit will end if he or she becomes eligible to receive significantly higher Social Security benefits on his or her own record. Social Security Spousal Benefits often represent a large part of the total benefits available to a couple. Benefits that are taken more than 36 months early are reduced an additional 5/12 of 1%. If you qualify for Social Security spousal benefits, the size of your benefit can be up to 50% of your spouse or ex-spouse’s primary insurance amount (PIA). Once approved, you will receive monthly payments by check or direct deposit. Who is eligible for spousal benefits from Social Security? If you're eligible for your own retirement benefits, you'll get those first. If the spouse begins receiving benefits (You must be at least age 62 to begin receiving benefits.). There are also other scenarios where you can claim survivor benefits at a younger age (and a reduced percentage), including if you are taking care of a child under the age of 16 or you are disabled. 25 percent. in . How are spousal benefits calculated for Social Security? Hi, Maureen. further reduced 5/12 of one percent per month. If the number of months exceeds 36, then the benefit is Example: Jane files for her retirement benefit at age 63 and is therefore receiving a retirement benefit that is smaller than her PIA. & Other Important Information. First, the Social Security Administration (SSA) calculates the benefits owed on your own earnings record (if you qualify). 4. However, if your spouse is already collecting Social Security (and if you were born on or after Jan. 2, 1954), then when you claim benefits, you are subject to “deemed filing”. A: When a claimant is on a Social Security disability claim, spousal benefits are payable under that claim as soon as the spouse reaches age 62, says David Cechanowicz a … Here are two of the major exceptions: An individual seeking spousal benefits may qualify if married to the worker for less than one year if he or she is the natural (biological) parent of the worker’s child. So if your spouse’s PIA is $1,000, you could receive a maximum of $500 in spousal benefits. Survivor benefits are for people whose spouse or ex-spouse has passed away. It will always be based on your mate’s primary insurance amount. You can claim a Social Security benefit based on your own earnings record, or you can collect a spousal benefit that will provide you 50 percent of the amount of your spouse’s Social Security benefit as calculated at their full retirement age, or FRA. People born on Jan. 1, 1954 or earlier, however, can still file a restricted application for just one benefit until they’ve reached full retirement age. When you turn 70, you would then switch to those earned benefits (assuming they are larger). She said social security told her when she elected to receive her own benefit at age 62 she eliminated the option to collect a spousal benefit. If you’re divorced, you’ll get the maximum spousal benefit, 50%, if you wait to reach your full retirement age. (Please note that benefits are generally paid in the Jane’s husband Bob files for a benefit as Jane’s spouse. To qualify for spouse’s benefits, you must either be: At least 62 years of age. Instead, you will receive whichever benefit is higher. Calculate the Social Security you’re owed in 2 minutes. Thus, in this case, the final spousal benefit is 37.5 percent of the primary HI Larry, My wife turned 62 in November 2019 and is collecting $700 per month as a … In that scenario, the higher earning spouse would file for earned retirement benefits when he or she reached full retirement age, but then suspend those benefits. Any age and caring for a child entitled to receive benefits on your spouse’s record who is younger than age 16 or disabled. Own Social Security Administration calculates spousal benefits and are also entitled to disability health... Break down everything you need to know, and the best way to your..., we mean a child who is eligible for spousal benefits are for people spouse... To how much you can file a restricted application for spousal benefits wife Social. A 25 percent reduction to the spouse will receive monthly payments by Check direct. 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